Hi all readers! In this article I will explain about the nature of Islamic teachings. Islam has several teachings that must be understood and practiced by each of his followers. The aim is that the vision of Islam can be implemented well. But unfortunately, not everyone knows about it. That’s why I wrote this article.
Okay! Straight to! I will explain the nature of Islamic teachings on several points as follows;
A. The Nature Theology
B. The Nature of Actions According to Islam
C. The Nature of Ethic
We can find the three kinds of teachings in the word of Allah as follows;
ذَٰلِكَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبُ لَا رَيۡبَۛ فِيهِۛ هُدٗى لِّلۡمُتَّقِينَ ٢ ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقۡنَٰهُمۡ يُنفِقُونَ ٣ وَٱلَّذِينَ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبۡلِكَ وَبِٱلۡأٓخِرَةِ هُمۡ يُوقِنُونَ ٤
That Book, there is no doubt in it, is a guide to those who guard (against evil)  Those who believe in the unseen and keep up prayer and spend out of what We have given them  And who believe in that which has been revealed to you and that which was revealed before you and they are sure of the hereafter . (Al-Baqarah ; 2-4).
It is true, in some verses of Quran above there is no specific information about ethics. But if we understand correctly, it turns out that ethics is a part of action. I will explain later. Just wait! Okay?
I think all three things are the nature of the teachings of all religions. But the difference is to explain it all. By the way, how does Islam explain these three things? Consider the explanation below!
A. Explanation of the Nature of Theology
Theology is one of the foundations of Islam. The meaning is, that someone is required to believe that God exists. In addition, one must believe in the existence of angels, the messengers of Allah, the books of Allah, the Day of Judgment, the provisions and decisions of Allah. Without it, one’s faith is invalid.
I will not explain it all now. Now I just want to explain the creed in general, about believing in Allah. I will explain about the others in time, Allah willing.
All religions believe in the existence of God. But the concept of divinity is often different. Islam affirms Allah with various kinds of characteristics; Allah is not a God belonging to one group, Allah is not a God belonging to one nation, Allah is not a God belonging to one race, but Allah is the God of all beings. Allah says;
ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلۡعَٰلَمِينَ ٢
All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. (Al-Fatihah ; 2).
إِذۡ قَالَ لَهُۥ رَبُّهُۥٓ أَسۡلِمۡۖ قَالَ أَسۡلَمۡتُ لِرَبِّ ٱلۡعَٰلَمِينَ ١٣١
When his Lord said to him, Be a Muslim, he said: I submit myself to the Lord of the worlds. (Al-Baqarah ; 131).
لَئِنۢ بَسَطتَ إِلَيَّ يَدَكَ لِتَقۡتُلَنِي مَآ أَنَا۠ بِبَاسِطٖ يَدِيَ إِلَيۡكَ لِأَقۡتُلَكَۖ إِنِّيٓ أَخَافُ ٱللَّهَ رَبَّ ٱلۡعَٰلَمِينَ ٢٨
If you will stretch forth your hand towards me to slay me, I am not one to stretch forth my hand towards you to slay you surely, I fear Allah, the Lord of the worlds. (Al-Ma’idah ; 28).
Islamic theology also teaches that everything in the universe is a creature that has been created by Allah. All are subject to His decisions;
لِّلَّهِ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِۗ وَإِن تُبۡدُواْ مَا فِيٓ أَنفُسِكُمۡ أَوۡ تُخۡفُوهُ يُحَاسِبۡكُم بِهِ ٱللَّهُۖ فَيَغۡفِرُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَآءُۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٖ قَدِيرٌ ٢٨٤
Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth is Allah´s; and whether you manifest what is in your minds or hide it, Allah will call you to account according to it; then He will forgive whom He pleases and chastise whom He pleases, and Allah has power over all things. (Al-Baqarah ; 284).
هُوَ ٱلَّذِي خَلَقَ لَكُم مَّا فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ جَمِيعٗا ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَوَىٰٓ إِلَى ٱلسَّمَآءِ فَسَوَّىٰهُنَّ سَبۡعَ سَمَٰوَٰتٖۚ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيۡءٍ عَلِيمٞ ٢٩
He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth, and He directed Himself to the heaven, so He made them complete seven heavens, and He knows all things. (Al-Baqarah ; 29).
ٱلَّذِي خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَمَا بَيۡنَهُمَا فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٖ ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَوَىٰ عَلَى ٱلۡعَرۡشِۖ ٱلرَّحۡمَٰنُ فَسَۡٔلۡ بِهِۦ خَبِيرٗا ٥٩
Who created the heavens and the earth and what is between them in six periods, and He is firmly established on the throne of authority; the Beneficent Allah, so ask respecting it one aware. (Al-Furqan ; 59).
ٱللَّهَ رَبَّكُمۡ وَرَبَّ ءَابَآئِكُمُ ٱلۡأَوَّلِينَ ١٢٦
Allah, your Lord and the Lord of your fathers of yore? (Ash-Shafat ; 126).
Islamic theology also explains that everything comes from Allah;
ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِي سَخَّرَ لَكُمُ ٱلۡبَحۡرَ لِتَجۡرِيَ ٱلۡفُلۡكُ فِيهِ بِأَمۡرِهِۦ وَلِتَبۡتَغُواْ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ وَلَعَلَّكُمۡ تَشۡكُرُونَ ١٢
Allah is He Who made subservient to you the sea that the ships may run therein by His command, and that you may seek of His grace, and that you may give thanks. (Al-Jatsiyah ; 12).
وَأَلۡقَىٰ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ رَوَٰسِيَ أَن تَمِيدَ بِكُمۡ وَأَنۡهَٰرٗا وَسُبُلٗا لَّعَلَّكُمۡ تَهۡتَدُونَ ١٥
And He has cast great mountains in the earth lest it might be convulsed with you, and rivers and roads that you may go aright. (An-Nahl ; 15).
ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِي رَفَعَ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ بِغَيۡرِ عَمَدٖ تَرَوۡنَهَاۖ ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَوَىٰ عَلَى ٱلۡعَرۡشِۖ وَسَخَّرَ ٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَۖ كُلّٞ يَجۡرِي لِأَجَلٖ مُّسَمّٗىۚ يُدَبِّرُ ٱلۡأَمۡرَ يُفَصِّلُ ٱلۡأٓيَٰتِ لَعَلَّكُم بِلِقَآءِ رَبِّكُمۡ تُوقِنُونَ ٢
Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that you see, and He is firm in power and He made the sun and the moon subservient (to you); each one pursues its course to an appointed time; He regulates the affair, making clear the signs that you may be certain of meeting your Lord. (Ar-Ra’du ; 2).
وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِي يُرۡسِلُ ٱلرِّيَٰحَ بُشۡرَۢا بَيۡنَ يَدَيۡ رَحۡمَتِهِۦۖ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَآ أَقَلَّتۡ سَحَابٗا ثِقَالٗا سُقۡنَٰهُ لِبَلَدٖ مَّيِّتٖ فَأَنزَلۡنَا بِهِ ٱلۡمَآءَ فَأَخۡرَجۡنَا بِهِۦ مِن كُلِّ ٱلثَّمَرَٰتِۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡمَوۡتَىٰ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَذَكَّرُونَ ٥٧
And He it is Who sends forth the winds bearing good news before His mercy, until, when they bring up a laden cloud, We drive it to a dead land, then We send down water on it, then bring forth with it of fruits of all kinds; thus shall We bring forth the dead that you may be mindful. (Al-A’raf ; 57).
وَٱللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ بِسَاطٗا ١٩
And Allah has made for you the earth a wide expanse. (Nuh ; 19).
وَٱللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنۡ أَنفُسِكُمۡ أَزۡوَٰجٗا وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنۡ أَزۡوَٰجِكُم بَنِينَ وَحَفَدَةٗ وَرَزَقَكُم مِّنَ ٱلطَّيِّبَٰتِۚ أَفَبِٱلۡبَٰطِلِ يُؤۡمِنُونَ وَبِنِعۡمَتِ ٱللَّهِ هُمۡ يَكۡفُرُونَ ٧٢
And Allah has made wives for you from among yourselves, and has given you sons and grandchildren from your wives, and has given you of the good things; is it then in the falsehood that they believe while it is in the favor of Allah that they disbelieve? (An-Nahl ; 72).
وَٱللَّهُ أَنۢبَتَكُم مِّنَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ نَبَاتٗا ١٧
And Allah has made you grow out of the earth as a growth. (Nuh ; 17).
Islamic theology explain that knowledge and power of Allah include everything;
وَعِندَهُۥ مَفَاتِحُ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ لَا يَعۡلَمُهَآ إِلَّا هُوَۚ وَيَعۡلَمُ مَا فِي ٱلۡبَرِّ وَٱلۡبَحۡرِۚ وَمَا تَسۡقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلَّا يَعۡلَمُهَا وَلَا حَبَّةٖ فِي ظُلُمَٰتِ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَا رَطۡبٖ وَلَا يَابِسٍ إِلَّا فِي كِتَٰبٖ مُّبِينٖ ٥٩
And with Him are the keys of the unseen treasures– none knows them but He; and He knows what is in the land and the sea, and there falls not a leaf but He knows it, nor a grain in the darkness of the earth, nor anything green nor dry but (it is all) in a clear book. (Al-An’am ; 59).
وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مِنۢ بَعۡدُ وَهَاجَرُواْ وَجَٰهَدُواْ مَعَكُمۡ فَأُوْلَٰٓئِكَ مِنكُمۡۚ وَأُوْلُواْ ٱلۡأَرۡحَامِ بَعۡضُهُمۡ أَوۡلَىٰ بِبَعۡضٖ فِي كِتَٰبِ ٱللَّهِۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيۡءٍ عَلِيمُۢ ٧٥
And (as for) those who believed afterwards and fled and struggled hard along with you, they are of you; and the possessors of relationships are nearer to each other in the ordinance of Allah; surely Allah knows all things. (An-Anfal ; 75).
وَمَن كَفَرَ فَلَا يَحۡزُنكَ كُفۡرُهُۥٓۚ إِلَيۡنَا مَرۡجِعُهُمۡ فَنُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا عَمِلُوٓاْۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمُۢ بِذَاتِ ٱلصُّدُورِ ٢٣
And whoever disbelieves, let not his disbelief grieve you; to Us is their return, then will We inform them of what they did surely Allah is the Knower of what is in the breasts. (Luqman ; 23).
Islamic theology explains that there is no god but Allah. Thus, there is no god of goodness, god of evil, god of wind, and so on. No one rejoices with Allah, because He has no partners;
فَٱعۡلَمۡ أَنَّهُۥ لَآ إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا ٱللَّهُ وَٱسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لِذَنۢبِكَ وَلِلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ وَٱلۡمُؤۡمِنَٰتِۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ مُتَقَلَّبَكُمۡ وَمَثۡوَىٰكُمۡ ١٩
So, know that there is no god but Allah, and, ask protection for your fault and for the believing men and the believing women; and Allah knows the place of your returning and the place of your abiding. (Muhammad ; 19).
قُلۡ إِنَّمَآ أَنَا۠ مُنذِرٞۖ وَمَا مِنۡ إِلَٰهٍ إِلَّا ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡوَٰحِدُ ٱلۡقَهَّارُ ٦٥
Say: I am only a warner, and there is no god but Allah, the One, the Subduer (of all). (Shad ; 65).
وَقَالَ ٱللَّهُ لَا تَتَّخِذُوٓاْ إِلَٰهَيۡنِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِۖ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَٰهٞ وَٰحِدٞ فَإِيَّٰيَ فَٱرۡهَبُونِ ٥١
And Allah has said: Take not two gods, He is only one Allah; so of Me alone should you be afraid. (An-Nahl ; 51).
وَٱعۡبُدُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَلَا تُشۡرِكُواْ بِهِۦ شَيۡٔٗاۖ وَبِٱلۡوَٰلِدَيۡنِ إِحۡسَٰنٗا وَبِذِي ٱلۡقُرۡبَىٰ وَٱلۡيَتَٰمَىٰ وَٱلۡمَسَٰكِينِ وَٱلۡجَارِ ذِي ٱلۡقُرۡبَىٰ وَٱلۡجَارِ ٱلۡجُنُبِ وَٱلصَّاحِبِ بِٱلۡجَنۢبِ وَٱبۡنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ وَمَا مَلَكَتۡ أَيۡمَٰنُكُمۡۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ مُخۡتَالٗا فَخُورًا ٣٦
And serve Allah and do not associate any thing with Him and be good to the parents and to the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the neighbor of (your) kin and the alien neighbor, and the companion in a journey and the wayfarer and those whom your right hands possess; surely Allah does not love him who is proud, boastful. (An-Nisa’ ; 36).
Islamic theology explains, that not a single creature, including the Prophets and Envoys, has power over one’s faith;
فَذَكِّرۡ إِنَّمَآ أَنتَ مُذَكِّرٞ ٢١ لَّسۡتَ عَلَيۡهِم بِمُصَيۡطِرٍ ٢٢
Therefore, do remind, for you are only a reminder  You are not a watcher over them . (Al-Ghatsyiah [88; 21-22).
Islamic theology explains that all beings will be resurrected after they die;
ثُمَّ إِنَّكُم بَعۡدَ ذَٰلِكَ لَمَيِّتُونَ ١٥ ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ تُبۡعَثُونَ ١٦
Then after that you will most surely die  Then surely on the day of resurrection you shall be raised . (Al-Mu’minun ; 15-16).
B. Explanation About the Nature of Actions According to Islam
The nature of the second Islamic teaching is actions. The meaning of action here is very broad. The point is that the action must be beneficial. But what is even more central to that is the creed (a testimony that there is no god but Allah and that the Prophet Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah), prayer, zakat, fasting in Ramadan, and going to Hajj for those who are able to do it.
Read; Cave of Hira’ and First Quran
One of verses of Quran which explains it is;
ٱتۡلُ مَآ أُوحِيَ إِلَيۡكَ مِنَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبِ وَأَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَۖ إِنَّ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ تَنۡهَىٰ عَنِ ٱلۡفَحۡشَآءِ وَٱلۡمُنكَرِۗ وَلَذِكۡرُ ٱللَّهِ أَكۡبَرُۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ مَا تَصۡنَعُونَ ٤٥
Recite that which has been revealed to you of the Book and keep up prayer; surely prayer keeps (one) away from indecency and evil, and certainly the remembrance of Allah is the greatest, and Allah knows what you do. (Al-‘Ankabut ; 45).
C. Explanation About the Nature of Ethics According to Islam
In Quran it is stated, that ethics is divided into two types;
1.) Ethics when someone meets other people. It can be understood, that someone who is ethical, when he meets other people, then he is willing to say hello (grace). Another example is not entering someone else’s house without permission;
وَإِذَا حُيِّيتُم بِتَحِيَّةٖ فَحَيُّواْ بِأَحۡسَنَ مِنۡهَآ أَوۡ رُدُّوهَآۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيۡءٍ حَسِيبًا ٨٦
And when you are greeted with a greeting, greet with a better (greeting) than it or return it; surely Allah takes account of all things. (An-Nisa’ ; 86).
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَدۡخُلُواْ بُيُوتًا غَيۡرَ بُيُوتِكُمۡ حَتَّىٰ تَسۡتَأۡنِسُواْ وَتُسَلِّمُواْ عَلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهَاۚ ذَٰلِكُمۡ خَيۡرٞ لَّكُمۡ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَذَكَّرُونَ ٢٧
O you who believe! Do not enter houses other than your own houses until you have asked permission and saluted their inmates; this is better for you, that you may be mindful. (An-Nur ; 27).
2.) General ethics, such as keeping promises, not lying, being patient when hit by disaster, being fair to people who are liked and people who are not liked, and so on;
لَّيۡسَ ٱلۡبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّواْ وُجُوهَكُمۡ قِبَلَ ٱلۡمَشۡرِقِ وَٱلۡمَغۡرِبِ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱلۡبِرَّ مَنۡ ءَامَنَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأٓخِرِ وَٱلۡمَلَٰٓئِكَةِ وَٱلۡكِتَٰبِ وَٱلنَّبِيِّۧنَ وَءَاتَى ٱلۡمَالَ عَلَىٰ حُبِّهِۦ ذَوِي ٱلۡقُرۡبَىٰ وَٱلۡيَتَٰمَىٰ وَٱلۡمَسَٰكِينَ وَٱبۡنَ ٱلسَّبِيلِ وَٱلسَّآئِلِينَ وَفِي ٱلرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتَى ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَٱلۡمُوفُونَ بِعَهۡدِهِمۡ إِذَا عَٰهَدُواْۖ وَٱلصَّٰبِرِينَ فِي ٱلۡبَأۡسَآءِ وَٱلضَّرَّآءِ وَحِينَ ٱلۡبَأۡسِۗ أُوْلَٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ صَدَقُواْۖ وَأُوْلَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُتَّقُونَ ١٧٧
It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards the East and the West, but righteousness is this that one should believe in Allah and the last day and the angels and the Book and the prophets, and give away wealth out of love for Him to the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and the beggars and for (the emancipation of) the captives, and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate; and the performers of their promise when they make a promise, and the patient in distress and affliction and in time of conflicts– these are they who are true (to themselves) and these are they who guard (against evil). (Al-Baqarah ; 177).
إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأۡمُرُ بِٱلۡعَدۡلِ وَٱلۡإِحۡسَٰنِ وَإِيتَآيِٕ ذِي ٱلۡقُرۡبَىٰ وَيَنۡهَىٰ عَنِ ٱلۡفَحۡشَآءِ وَٱلۡمُنكَرِ وَٱلۡبَغۡيِۚ يَعِظُكُمۡ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَذَكَّرُونَ ٩٠
Surely Allah enjoins the doing of justice and the doing of good (to others) and the giving to the kindred, and He forbids indecency and evil and rebellion; He admonishes you that you may be mindful. (An-Nahl ; 90).
خُذِ ٱلۡعَفۡوَ وَأۡمُرۡ بِٱلۡعُرۡفِ وَأَعۡرِضۡ عَنِ ٱلۡجَٰهِلِينَ ١٩٩
Take to forgiveness and enjoin good and turn aside from the ignorant. (Al-A’raf ; 199).
قُلۡ مَنۡ حَرَّمَ زِينَةَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّتِيٓ أَخۡرَجَ لِعِبَادِهِۦ وَٱلطَّيِّبَٰتِ مِنَ ٱلرِّزۡقِۚ قُلۡ هِيَ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ فِي ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا خَالِصَةٗ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِۗ كَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ ٱلۡأٓيَٰتِ لِقَوۡمٖ يَعۡلَمُونَ ٣٢
Say: Who has prohibited the embellishment of Allah which He has brought forth for His servants and the good provisions? Say: These are for the believers in the life of this world, purely (theirs) on the resurrection day; thus, do We make the communications clear for a people who know. (Al-A’raf ; 32).
قُلۡ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ ٱلۡفَوَٰحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنۡهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَٱلۡإِثۡمَ وَٱلۡبَغۡيَ بِغَيۡرِ ٱلۡحَقِّ وَأَن تُشۡرِكُواْ بِٱللَّهِ مَا لَمۡ يُنَزِّلۡ بِهِۦ سُلۡطَٰنٗا وَأَن تَقُولُواْ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ ٣٣
Say: My Lord has only prohibited indecencies, those of them that are apparent as well as those that are concealed, and sin and rebellion without justice, and that you associate with Allah that for which He has not sent down any authority, and that you say against Allah what you do not know. (Al-A’raf ; 33).
All readers! That is a brief explanation of About the nature of Islamic teachings. May be useful!
See you again in the next article!
Ahmad Amin, Fajr al-Islam, ad-Dar al-Masriah al-Lubnaniyah Publishing, Cairo, 2016. p. 118-123.