Hi readers all! In this article I will invite you all to know about the social status in the view of Islam. I think we all need to know this because sometimes, or maybe even often happens in our daily life, there are differences in the treatment of human beings because there are differences in social status, both in terms of position, property, lineage, and so forth.
Indeed, the different treatment of fellow human beings based on the different social status is not a recent phenomenon. I think that’s also a common phenomenon that can happen anywhere. I also think that’s why we find so many religious teachings that erase the differences in social status, both Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. The reason is very clear; because it is against the sense of humanity and religious teachings; because it should not happen.
As a religion of course Islam is also present in the condition of society that can be said to have started away from the teachings of true religion. One concrete example, and I think this phenomenon is still happening today, is there is a difference in the application of the law of a case or a crime. We can see, for example, that if a crime is committed by a person who is derived from a lower class, a poor person, or an unlawful person, then the judicial process is executed very quickly and the sentence decided may be in accordance with the law or even beyond the ones listed in it. But the problem would be different if the crime was committed by the rich, the person of high rank or high power, or a respected person. Thus, the judicial process can proceed very quickly or even eliminated. Even if at the end of the judicial process set penalties for those who have high social status, then the punishment can be made very light.
If indeed we really want to read history, then we will find that such a phenomenon has occurred even before the time of the prophet Muhammad. Such facts can be found in a hadith like this;
يا ايها الناس , انما ضل من كان قبلكم أنهم كانوا اذا سرق الشريف تركوه , واذا سرق الضعيف أقاموا عليه الحد , وأيم الله , لو سرقت فاطمة بنت محمد لقطع محمد يدها
O people! Indeed, the people before you are destroyed because if there are people who are respected to steal, they do not judge, but if there are people who are weak to steal then they judge. By Allah, if Fatima bint Muhammad steal, then Muhammad will cut off her hand.
From the above hadith we can take some very valuable conclusions to convince the hearts and minds, that Islam does negate social status differences especially when it is related to the application of law. Among them;
1. There is no gender difference in the enforcement process. If a person has committed a crime, whether he is male or female, then the law must be upheld just as fair as possible, unless there is a greater danger, which is bound to happen if the punishment is carried out (Allah willing, it will be discussed in the next article).
2. The law stands on a sense of kinship or friendship. All those who are guilty must accept the consequences or punishment for their wrongdoing.
3. Fatimah bint Prophet Muhammad is a person who has a position in his heart. But even so, if she had stolen and the amount of stolen goods had allowed the hand-cut penalty to be imposed, then he himself would carry out the punishment.
Now, we can conclude that the objective of the abolition of social status in Islamic teachings is to realize the values of humanity that should exist in everyday life. In addition, the goal is also to affirm one thing; that the noblest person before Allah, the Lord of the universe, is the most pious. Allah said;
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقۡنَٰكُم مِّن ذَكَرٖ وَأُنثَىٰ وَجَعَلۡنَٰكُمۡ شُعُوبٗا وَقَبَآئِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوٓاْۚ إِنَّ أَكۡرَمَكُمۡ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ أَتۡقَىٰكُمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٞ ١٣
O you men! surely, We have created you of a male and a female, and made you tribes and families that you may know each other; surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful (of his duty); surely Allah is Knowing, Aware. (Al-Hujuraat ; 13).
But there is an important question we must answer here with regard to the above discussion; Is it okay to forgive a criminal (such as a theft)? Can the punishment be canceled with forgiveness?
I would like to quote the words of Imam an-Nawawi to answer the two questions above. He said, “All Islamic scholars agree not to forgive crimes after the crime reaches the judge (in court).”
The agreement of the scholars of Islam as mentioned by the above-mentioned Imam al-Nawawi based on the hadith I have mentioned above (because there is essentially no tolerance for evil), also because of the following hadith;
عن صفوان بن أمية رضي الله عنه قال : كنت نائما في المسجد علي خميصة لي , فسرقت , فأخذنا السارق , فرفعنا ه الي رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم , فأمر بقطعه , فقلت : يا رسول الله , أفي خميصة ثمنها ثلاثون درهما؟ أنا أهبها له أو أبيعها له , قال : فهلا كان قبل أن تأتيني به
From Shafwan bin Umayyah radliyallâhu ánhu, he said, “I slept in the mosque on my clothes. The clothes were then stolen. We then arrested the thief and we brought to the Messenger of Allah sallallâhu álaihi wa sallam. He then ordered to cut off his hand. I then said, “O Messenger of Allah, is the garment worth thirty dirhams? I gave it to him or I sold it to him.” He then said, “Why did not you do that before you came to me with it?”
I think the above explanation is clear enough. But what we need to know is that in the view of Islamic teachings, the absence of tolerance for crimes as above only applies to cases that have reached the court and the provision of absolute punishment belongs to the judge. But in cases where the absolute legal provisions belong to the disadvantaged party, such as the murder case, the validity of the punishment depends on the decision of the aggrieved party, even if the case has reached the court.
The legal basis of the exception I am referring to in the above paragraph can be seen in the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad below;
أن النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم كتب الي أهل اليمن وفيه : أن من اعتبط مؤمنا قتر عن بينة , فانه قود الا ان يرضي أولياء المقتول , وان في النفس الدية مائة من الابل , وفي الأنف اذا أوعب جدعه الدية , وفي اللسان الدية , وفي الشفتين الدية , وفي الذكر الدية , وفي البيضتين , وفي الصلب الدية , وفي العينين الدية , وفي الرجل الواحدة نصف الدية , وفي المأمومة ثلث الدية , وفي الجانفة ثلث الدية , وفي المنقلة خمس عشر من الابل , وفي كل أصبع من أصابع اليد والرجل عشر من الابل , وفي السن خمس من الابل , وفي الموضحة خمس من الابل , وان الرجل يقتل بالمرأة , وعلي أهل الذهب ألف دينار
That the Prophet shallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam never sent a letter to the Yemeni population. In the letter it says, “That whoever actually kills a believer intentionally then he must be killed, except the heirs of the slain, the fine of murdering the soul is a hundred camels, the nose cut out there is a fine, the tongue has a fine, two lips are there fine, genital there is a fine; two penis seeds have a fine; the spine is a penalty, two eyes have a penalty, half a foot (one foot) has a fine, half the head of a penny; wound of fifteen camels, each fingers and toe of a fine of ten camels, five camels, five injured tooth injuries, five bundles of injury, five camels, a man killed for murdering a woman, for people who used to use gold could pay a thousand dinars.”
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيۡكُمُ ٱلۡقِصَاصُ فِي ٱلۡقَتۡلَىۖ ٱلۡحُرُّ بِٱلۡحُرِّ وَٱلۡعَبۡدُ بِٱلۡعَبۡدِ وَٱلۡأُنثَىٰ بِٱلۡأُنثَىٰۚ فَمَنۡ عُفِيَ لَهُۥ مِنۡ أَخِيهِ شَيۡءٞ فَٱتِّبَاعُۢ بِٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ وَأَدَآءٌ إِلَيۡهِ بِإِحۡسَٰنٖۗ ذَٰلِكَ تَخۡفِيفٞ مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ وَرَحۡمَةٞۗ فَمَنِ ٱعۡتَدَىٰ بَعۡدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَلَهُۥ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٞ ١٧٨
O you who believe! retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the slain, the free for the free, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female, but if any remission is made to any one by his (aggrieved) brother, then prosecution (for the bloodwit) should be made according to usage, and payment should be made to him in a good manner; this is an alleviation from your Lord and a mercy; so whoever exceeds the limit after this he shall have a painful chastisement. (Al-Baqarah ; 178).
I think the brief description above is sufficient to represent the intent of this article. May be useful.
See you in the next article!