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6 Important Things About Tahkim (Arbitration) Between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan

6 Important Things About Tahkim (Arbitration) Between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan ~ Hi readers! Have you ever heard of Tahkim (arbitration) in Islamic history? In Islamic history, Tahkim (arbitration) was one of the major events that marked the agreement between Ali ibn Abi Talib as well as the Kuffah forces and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan as well as the Syam troops. Tahkim (arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan is a very complicated piece of knowledge because there is a lot of historical data that explains it differently.

Although it is not easy to understand Tahkim (arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, there are six important and very basic things about it that we should know. It will be easy for us to understand it all if we have read all the historical data of Islam about it, such as the one in the book “Târîkhu ath-Tabari” by ath-Thabari, “al-Bidâyah wa an-Nihâyah” by Ibn Kathir, “al-Kâmil fî at-Târîkh” by Ibn Atsir, and so on.

Honestly, I have read a lot of Islamic historical data about Tahkim (arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan in these three books and several other books. That’s why I will explain six important things about it in this article. So, if you want to understand that, then you guys should be about reading this article to the end!

There are six important things about Tahkim (arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan which I mean are as follows:

  1. Definition of Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan.
  2. Why is there a Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan?
  3. How was the Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan carried out?
  4. When was the Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan conducted?
  5. 12 Important Points in Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan.
  6. Purpose of Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan.

Definition of Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan

In general, we can understand that what is meant by Tahkim (Arbitration) is a way to resolve civil conflicts that are carried out outside the judiciary. Likewise with the Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan.

Specifically, if we have read the historical data of Islam, then we will understand that what is meant by Tahkim is to solve the problems that occurred between Ali ibn Abi Talib as well as the Kuffah forces and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan as well as the Syam troops by using the Koran.

I personally see that the intention of making the Koran an intermediary is for it to be a witness to their agreement. Of course it would be very debatable if what is meant is to make the contents of the Koran as a basis for finding the truth for the problem that is going on – I think that is what the Iraqi forces thought when they urged Ali ibn Abi Talib to accept Tahkim – because apart from each party has claimed as the right party, also because all historical data relating to Tahkim, whether before, the process, or after, as happened in Adzruh or Dumatul Jandal according to the majority of popular historical data, at least as I have encountered, there is nothing to explain the process make verses of the Koran a mutually agreed upon provision.

Why is there a Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan?

The question is very logical. If we want to understand Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, then one of the things we have to know is about the motive for the occurrence of Tahkim (Arbitration). An understanding of that will give us a good discourse because Tahkim (arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Thalib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan is a phenomenon that does not arise automatically: there is a very principle problem that causes the occurrence of Tahkim (Arbitration) between the two of them.

If we look at Islamic historical data on Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, then we will understand that this incident emerged as a temporary solution to the problem between Ali ibn Abi Talib as well as Kuffah troops and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan. The problem arose because Uthman bin Affan as the third Khalifa had been killed by the rebels. The rebels were members of the army led by Ali ibn Abi Talib.

Faced with the differences in the history regarding the time of writing the Tahkim text as above, in fact, we must first clarify two things as follows;

First; the year of the Prophet Muhammad’s death.

Second; the end of all Shiffin’s war series with certainty.

But one thing we must understand here, that the problem is not simple. In short, when it was the rebels who had killed Uthman bin Affan, they were one of the groups that formalized Ali ibn Abi Talib as the fourth Khalifa. Of course, as a Khalifa, Ali ibn Abi Talib wanted all areas that had been controlled by Islam to obey and establish himself as a Caliph.

On the other hand, Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan and the residents of Syam did not want to take allegiance if the killers of Uthman ibn Affan were not punished. What they demanded is that the third Khalifa killers should be killed as a commensurate punishment.

It was at this time that the problem arose. On the one hand, Ali ibn Abi Talib was eager to punish the rebels who had killed Uthman ibn Affan. But on the other hand he does not know specifically who killed the third Khalifa. In fact, there are many companions of the Prophet Muhammad (Sahabi) who also wanted the killers to be punished immediately. They said that to Ali ibn Abi Talib. In fact, they made this punishment a condition of baiat. But Ali ibn Abi Talib was unable to do that because the rebels had taken Medina.

When the rebels who were in the ranks of Ali ibn Abi Talib’s army urged Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan and Syam to immediately formalize Ali ibn Abi Talib as Khalifa, when Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan and Syam still did not want to formalize Ali ibn Abi Talib as Khalifa before the killers Uthman ibn Affah was punished, then there was a war called the “Shiffin War”.

There were many troops who died in the Shiffin war, either troops from Ali ibn Abi Talib’s side or troops from Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan’s side. Each party then realized that the war had to be stopped immediately, otherwise there would be a large number of Islamic troops who would die. As a result, the power of Islam will become weak.

When each party realized that, then both parties agreed to stop the war and make a peace agreement known as “Tahkim (Arbitration)”.

How was the Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan carried out?

Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan was carried out by making an agreement on several matters. Ali ibn Abi Talib and the Kuffah troops made Abu Musa al-Asy’ari their representative. Meanwhile, Muawiyah and the Syam troops made Amru ibn Ash their representative.

When was the Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan conducted?

Actually, there are four opinions regarding the time of writing the Tahkim text (Arbitration);

First; The majority of historical data that I have encountered explains the writing of the Tahkim (Arbitration) text occurred on Wednesday, 13 Shafar, 37 hijria. We can find this explanation in Ibn Atsir’s “al-Bidâyah wa an-Nihâyah” and Ibn Atsir’s “al-Kâmil fî at-Târîkh.

Second; Al-Baladzuri’s narration in the book “Ansâbu al-Asyrâf” explains that the Tahkim text (Arbitration) was written eleven nights before the end of Shafar in 37 hijria. With regard to this, to be honest, I had a lot of trouble determining what date it would be. On the one hand, I did not find any historical data explaining the number of days in the month of Shafar at that time; 29 days or 30 days. On the other hand, I also find no complementary explanation as to whether the incident counted in the eleventh. This means that the narration of al-Baladzuri opens, at least, three possible times for the writing of the Tahkim text; between the 18th, 19th, or 20th of the Shafar month 37 hijri.

Third; Al-Baradi’s narration in the book “al-Jawâhir” explains that the Tahkim (Arbitration) text was completed on Wednesday, the 13th of Rabiul Awal, twenty-nine years after the death of the Prophet Muhammad.

Fourth; Muhammad Hamidullah in the book “Majmû’atu al-Watsâ’iq as-Siyâsiyah” explains, that the Tahkim (Arbitration) text was written on the 13 remaining days of Shafar month 37 hijria.

Of course, the existence of these four opinions is very confusing, because it is impossible for one event to occur only once to occur at three different times. In addition, it is advisable to write the Tahkim text shortly after all of the Shiffin’s series of wars have ended.

With regard to the year of the Prophet Muhammad’s death, if we observe all the series of history, we will find an explanation, that he died on Monday, 12 Rabiul Awal, 11 hijria (632 AD). We can find this explanation, for example, in the narrations of Tabari, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Atsir, adz-Dzahabi, and al-Baradi. Of course, taking into account the history of the year of his death, we can consider al-Baradi’s narrative about the writing of the Tahkim text twenty-nine years after his death, which means in the year 40 hijria, as a history that is very difficult to accept by common sense. The reason is, because the majority of the narrations explain, that Ali ibn Abi Talib died that year, 40 hijria. In fact, al-Baradi also explained the same thing.

To do with the second thing, to be honest, it is very difficult to trace the exact end of the Shiffin war. So far I also have not found any historian who explains the validity of the reports about it; Is it Thursday or Friday, is it the 9th or 10th of the Shafar? However, what is clear is that the majority of historical data that I have encountered explains that the series of wars occurred for 9 days starting on Wednesday, the 1st of Shafar, 37 hijria, as I previously explained.

In relation to the writing time of the Tahkim text according to the majority, al-Baladzuri, and Muhammad Hamidullah above, the difference is not too big when compared to the narration of al-Baradi. Only around the middle of the month Shafar in the year 37 hijria. However, if you consider the majority of the narrations about the writing of the Tahkim text that was carried out immediately after the war was over, it can be assumed that the majority version (Wednesday, 13 Shafar) is closer to the truth than the versions of al-Baladzuri and Muhammad Hamidullah.

12 Important Points in Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan

The Tahkim Text (Arbitration) itself contains at least twelve points agreed upon by each party as follows;

One: That Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan and all their supporters agreed to use the Koran and the Sunnah as mediators for the chaos that occurred between them.

Two: That Ali ibn Abi Talib represented the people of Kuffah, whether they were present at that time or not. Meanwhile, Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan represented the people of Syam, whether they were present at that time or not.

Three: That each party agrees to use all the teachings in the Koran to solve all the problems that have occurred.

Four: That Ali ibn Abi Talib appointed Abu Musa al-Asy’ari as his representative, while Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan appointed Amru bin Ash as his representative.

Five: Whereas if one of the appointed representatives dies before the next negotiations are held, then the party concerned must choose another person who can be trusted to replace him.

Six: Whereas if one of the leading candidates dies before the next negotiations are held, then the related parties must choose someone else who can be trusted to replace him.

Seven: That each party has agreed to end the dispute.

Eight: That the safety of all people, their property, and their families be safeguarded until a specified time limit. Road safety is guaranteed. People who were not present at that time had the same position as those present at that time.

Nine: That the two representatives who have been appointed by each party must be fair to both parties.

Ten: That the deadline is until the month of Ramadan. If the two representatives deem it necessary to speed it up, then both of them may hasten it. If the two representatives deem it necessary to postpone it, then they can both postpone it.

Eleven: That if the two of them cannot find the best solution based on the Koran, then the status of the two parties will return to the way it was before, they may go to war.

Twelve: That all parties must comply with all of these agreements.

Purpose of Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan

Now, if we have understood some of the brief explanations above, of course, we will understand that the aim of the Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan is to stop the war that has occurred because Uthman ibn Affan died because he was killed by the rebels and looking for a solution that is very good for all parties, Ali ibn Abi Talib as well as the Kuffah and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan troops as well as the Syam troops.

Readers all! That is a brief explanation of six important things about Tahkim (Arbitration) between Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan. Do you guys understand? If you have any questions, please ask!

I think that’s all for this article. Hope it is useful! Amen!

See you again in the next article!

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