Prophet Muhammad Was Fair ~ Hi all readers! In the previous article, I explained the importance of justice and its privileges in Islamic teachings. In this article, I will explain the example of fairness that was carried out by the Prophet Muhammad when he punished cases between Muslims and Jews. We need to know this, because in fact, and this is very important for us to remember, until whenever the law must stand on a sense of family and class.
One day, a Muslim named Tha’mah bin Ubiraq (another opinion said; Basyir bin Ubiraq) from one of the Ansar tribes of Banu Ubiraq bin Dhafr bin al-Harith had stolen the armor from his neighbor, Qatadah bin Nukman. The armor is in a bag with flour in it. The flour then fell because the bag leaked until it reached a house.
Qatadah bin Nukman then found out who owns the house. After that, he knew that the owner was a Jew named Zaid bin Samin. But the armor was underneath by Tha’mah bin Ubiraq. The Jew swore, that he did not steal armor. The owner of the armor said that they had seen traces of flour in his house.
In short, the issue was then reported to the Prophet. After he heard the testimonies of the witnesses, he almost wanted to punish the Jews. But Allah Ta’ala then sent down a few verses of the Qur’an below;
إِنَّآ أَنزَلۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ ٱلۡكِتَٰبَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ لِتَحۡكُمَ بَيۡنَ ٱلنَّاسِ بِمَآ أَرَىٰكَ ٱللَّهُۚ وَلَا تَكُن لِّلۡخَآئِنِينَ خَصِيمٗا ١٠٥وَٱسۡتَغۡفِرِ ٱللَّهَۖ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورٗا رَّحِيمٗا ١٠٦وَلَا تُجَٰدِلۡ عَنِ ٱلَّذِينَ يَخۡتَانُونَ أَنفُسَهُمۡۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ خَوَّانًا أَثِيمٗا ١٠٧يَسۡتَخۡفُونَ مِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ وَلَا يَسۡتَخۡفُونَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ وَهُوَ مَعَهُمۡ إِذۡ يُبَيِّتُونَ مَا لَا يَرۡضَىٰ مِنَ ٱلۡقَوۡلِۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِمَا يَعۡمَلُونَ مُحِيطًا ١٠٨هَٰٓأَنتُمۡ هَٰٓؤُلَآءِ جَٰدَلۡتُمۡ عَنۡهُمۡ فِي ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا فَمَن يُجَٰدِلُ ٱللَّهَ عَنۡهُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَٰمَةِ أَم مَّن يَكُونُ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَكِيلٗا ١٠٩وَمَن يَعۡمَلۡ سُوٓءًا أَوۡ يَظۡلِمۡ نَفۡسَهُۥ ثُمَّ يَسۡتَغۡفِرِ ٱللَّهَ يَجِدِ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٗا رَّحِيمٗا ١١٠وَمَن يَكۡسِبۡ إِثۡمٗا فَإِنَّمَا يَكۡسِبُهُۥ عَلَىٰ نَفۡسِهِۦۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمٗا ١١١وَمَن يَكۡسِبۡ خَطِيَٓٔةً أَوۡ إِثۡمٗا ثُمَّ يَرۡمِ بِهِۦ بَرِيٓٔٗا فَقَدِ ٱحۡتَمَلَ بُهۡتَٰنٗا وَإِثۡمٗا مُّبِينٗا ١١٢
Surely, We have revealed the Book to you with the truth that you may judge between people by means of that which Allah has taught you; and be not an advocate on behalf of the treacherous  And ask forgiveness of Allah; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.  And do not plead on behalf of those who act unfaithfully to their souls; surely Allah does not love him who is treacherous, sinful;  They hide themselves from men and do not hide themselves from Allah, and He is with them when they meditate by night words which please Him not, and Allah encompasses what they do.  Behold! you are they who (may) plead for them in this world´s life, but who will plead for them with Allah on the resurrection day, or who shall be their protector?  And whoever does evil or acts unjustly to his soul, then asks forgiveness of Allah, he shall find Allah Forgiving, Merciful.  And whoever commits a sin, he only commits it against his own soul; and Allah is Knowing, Wise.  And whoever commits a fault or a sin, then accuses of it one innocent, he indeed takes upon himself the burden of a calumny and a manifest sin. . (An-Nisaa’ ; 105-112).
Actually, before the above verses came down, the Prophet Muhammad was convinced that those who stole were those Jews. That’s because indeed the available evidence shows this. But some verses of the Qur’an go down to explain the truth. After that he announced very clearly, that the accused Jews were innocent, and that the thief was a Muslim.
All readers! That is a brief explanation of Prophet Muhammad was fair when He penalized the case between Muslims and Jews. Of course, it is very hard if done by ordinary people, because it requires firmness and neutrality that stands above feelings.
I think that is enough for this article about. May be useful! Amen!
See you again in the next article!
We can find the following story above, Fannu at-Ta’aamul an-Nabawiy ma’a Ghairi al-Muslimiin, by Raghib as-Sarjani, Dar al-Arqam, Cairo, 2010, p. 110-120.