Obligation to Prevent Damage According to Islam ~ Hi readers! In this article, I will invite you all to recognize one other obligation that is required by Islam to be done by its adherents. This one duty is different from the obligations that we often hear, such as prayer (doing salat), fasting (doing shaum in Ramadhan), doing hajj, and so forth. In practice, these obligations are arguably more related to ethics and may have an effect on social stability. The obligation I mean is the obligation to prevent the occurrence of ugliness or damage.
In the tradition of Islamic law (fiqh), the duty as mentioned above is known as Saddu adz-Dzarai’ (سد الذرائع). Of the many religious schools in Islam, this one duty is often known to be closer to the Maliki school of thought, since they are the ones who often speak of adz-dzarai’ (causes of adversity). But in reality, and I agree with this opinion, the discussion of it also exists in other streams. (Abu al-Abbas Syihabuddin Ahmad bin Idris bin Abdirrahman al-Maliki al-Qarafi, Anwaaru al-Buruq fii Anwaa’i al-Furuuq, 3/46).
But in this article, I will not invite you to discuss this one obligation on legal issues (fiqh) and the procedure of excavation. Here I will invite you to discuss it in terms of ethics and its influence on social stability. And, I think it would be more useful in practical terms.
To facilitate the discussion of this one obligation I will convey one or two examples in everyday life. Surely, we still remember the insulting events of the Prophet Muhammad, insult to the holy Qur’an, insulting the symbols of Islam. I am fully aware that all the humiliation is very hurt feelings of the Muslims. If we look at the phenomenon with a clear mind, then we will find that the contempt is very contrary to the ethics that we must obey, and such phenomena have the potential to raise havoc which resulted in undermining social stability and harmony among religious people.
To undo the happening of things that are not desirable as above Islam has firmly forbade all its followers to do actions that could trigger the emergence of conflict as intended above. Allah said;
وَلَا تَسُبُّواْ ٱلَّذِينَ يَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ فَيَسُبُّواْ ٱللَّهَ عَدۡوَۢا بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٖۗ كَذَٰلِكَ زَيَّنَّا لِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ عَمَلَهُمۡ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِم مَّرۡجِعُهُمۡ فَيُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ ١٠٨
And do not abuse those whom they call upon besides Allah, lest exceeding the limits they should abuse Allah out of ignorance. Thus, have We made fair seeming to every people their deeds; then to their Lord shall be their return, so He will inform them of what they did. (Al-An’aam ; 108).
For me, the duty to prevent this ugliness can also be done by not insulting others especially if the person is a leader. It’s true, in everyday life sometimes, or even often, we find other people do not like us or even insult us. If we reply to them with insults then what will happen is mutual insult, which is not impossible even will lead to an anarchist attitude either committed by individuals or groups.
We also sometimes, or even often, find a leader whose policies are inconsistent with his promises. Usually, the response given by the community is to insult and vilify both directly and indirectly, such as through social media. Of course, if any person or group insults a leader, the supporters of the leader will respond to the insult, either verbally, in writing, or even in action. I think we already know the consequences that will happen; mutual humiliation and, perhaps even, strike each other.
In the teachings of Islam all these attitudes are strictly prohibited. We can see the prohibition in the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad below;
فان دماءكم وأموالكم وأعراضكم حرام عليكم كحرمة يومكم هذا في بلدكم هذا في شهركم هذا , وستلقون ربكم فيسألكم عن أعمالكم فلا ترجعن كفارا – أو ضلالا – يضرب بعضكم رقاب بعض , ألا ليبلغ الشاهد الغائب
Your blood, your treasure, your honor, is haram (glorified-protected) for you as it is haram (glorified-protected) of your day, in your country, on this month of yours. You will meet your Lord. He will ask you all about your deeds. Do not you ever go back to kufr or misguidance so that you will fight each other. Let the people present now present it to the absent. (The hadith is narrated by al-Bukhari, as-Shahiih, Kitaabu al-‘Ilmi, 105, and ]Muslim, 4359).
لا تسبوا أمراءكم , ولا تغشواهم , ولا تبغضواهم , والتقوا الله واصبروا , فان الأمر قريب
Do not condemn your leaders, do not deceive them, do not be angry with them, fear Allah and be patient, for indeed a matter is near. (Ibnu Abi ‘Ashim, as-Sunnah, 845).
Another example of applying the obligation to prevent the occurrence of damage in the application of Islamic law can be found in the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad below;
عن عمران بن حصين رضي الله عنه : أن أمراة من جهينة أتت النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم وهي حبلي من الزنا , فقالت : يا نبي الله , أصبت حدا فأقمه علي , فدعا رسول الله وليها , فقال : أحسن اليها , فاذا وضعت لإئتني بها . ففعل , فأمر بها فشكت عليها ثيابها , ثم أمر فرجمت , ثم صلي عليها , فقال عمر : أتصلي عليها يا نبي الله وقد زنت ؟ فقال صلي الله عليه وسلم : لقد تابت توبة لو قسمت بين سبعين من أهل المدينة لوسعتهم , وهل وجدت توبة أفضل من أن جادت بنفسها لله تعالى؟
From “Imran bin Husain radliyallaahu ‘anhu; Surely a woman from the Jahinah comes to the Prophet (Muhammad) shallallaahu ‘alahi wa sallam, while she is pregnant because of adultery. He then said, “O Prophet of Allah, I have made a mistake, punish me.” Messenger of Allah then summoned her guardian and said, “Treat this woman well. If she has given birth then bring her here. The guardian then did his orders. After the woman gave birth, she was brought before him. He then ordered that her clothes be tied to her for whipped (rajam). (After the woman died) then he did the prayer (doing shalat) for her. Umar then said, “Are you going to reconcile the woman, O Prophet of Allah, when she has committed adultery?” He then said, “The woman had indeed regretted her actions (doing taubat), and if her regrets (taubat) were divided into seventy Madinah residents would still be enough. Have you ever found someone more important than a man who has surrendered fully to Allah Ta’ala?” (The hadith is narrated by Muslim, 11/204).
We can find a very cautious attitude done by the Prophet Muhammad in the above hadith. It was told there was a woman from Jahinah who was pregnant because she had committed adultery. With full awareness she came to see him and asked him to get herself punished. In the teachings of Islam, the penalty for adulterers is whipped. He fully understands that if the punishment is executed at that moment it will also be fatal to the fetus still in the womb. He did not want the fetus to die with his mother just because of the execution of the punishment. He suspended the sentence for a while until the fetus was born.
These are some practical examples of applying obligations to prevent damage or harm. This obligation is obligated, of course, as a form of Islamic love of the universe. That’s all because Islam is a religion that teaches love without having to leave things that are mandatory.
I think the brief review above is sufficient to explain the purpose of this article. May be useful! May peace and compassion become more and more manifest in this life. On earth and in the sky.
See you again in the next article!