Legal Decision of Prophet Muhammad ~ Hi all readers! In this article, I will explain the power of evidence in every legal decision of the Prophet Muhammad. In the previous articles we already knew about his justice when he interacted with non-Muslims when he decided on issues between Muslims and non-Muslims, and when he was harmed, then in this article we will know about one factor that greatly influences his legal decisions.
Before I explain more about the legal decision of Prophet Muhammad, I will quote two hadiths that are specifically related to the theme of this article. The two hadiths that I mean are as follows;
روى عبد الله بن مسعود رضي الله عنها قال : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : من حلف على يمين وهو فيها فاجر ليقتطع بها مال امرئ مسلم لقي الله وهو عليه غضبان
Abdullah bin Mas’ud radliyallaahu ‘anhu narrated, he said, “The Messenger of Allah shallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said, “Whoever swears but he lies in the oath so that he can reduce the wealth of a Muslim, then he will meet Allah and Allah will be angry with him.”
روى سهل بن أبي حثمة رضي الله عنه أن نفرا من قومه انطلقوا إلى خيبر , فتفرقوا فيها , ووجدوا أحدهم قتيلا , وقالوا للذي وجد فيهم : قد قتلتم صاحبنا . قالوا : ما قتلنا ولا علمنا قاتلا . فانطلقوا إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم , فقالوا : يا رسول الله , انطلقنا إلى خيبر فوجدنا أحدنا قتيلا . فقال : الكبر الكبر . فقال لهم : تأتون بالبينة على من قتله؟ قالوا : ما لنا بينة !! قال : فيحلفون . قالوا :لا نرضى بأيمان اليهود . فكره رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أن يبطل دمه , فوداه مائة من إبل الصدقة
Sahal bin Abi Hatsmah radliyallaahu ‘anhu related that there was a group of people who went to Khaibar. There they then split up. They then found one person from those killed. They then said to the people they met there, “Really you have killed our best friend.” The people said, “We did not kill and we did not know anyone was killed.” They then went to meet the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alaihi wa sallam. They then said, “O Messenger of Allah, we have gone to Khaibar then we found one of us who was killed.” The Prophet Muhammad said, “Present the greatest of you to speak.” The Prophet Muhammad then said to them, “Are you have proof of the person who killed him?” They replied, “We have no proof!!” The Prophet Muhammad said, “Then they must swear.” They said, “We do not accept the oath of the Jews.” The Prophet sallallâhu ‘alaihi wa sallam did not like to waste his blood. He then redeemed him with one hundred camels from alms camels.” (The hadith is narrated by al-Bukhari (6502) and Muslim (1669)).
All readers! If we look at the hadith that I first conveyed, then we will know that false oaths are strictly prohibited in Islam. In the hadith, the Prophet Muhammad explicitly explained that the person who gave a perjury would get the wrath of Allah Ta’ala. Indeed, there is no clear statement about the power of evidence in each settlement of the charges in the hadith. But the hadith signaled to everyone who swore that he be honest. He can’t lie! Actually, this is general because it is for the common good.
Whereas if we examine the second hadith, then we will know the power of evidence in resolving all charges. In the hadith explained, that the Prophet Muhammad asked for evidence to the Muslims who had accused the Jews of killing their best friend. Remember! This incident occurred in the Khaibar region, the territory of the Jews, after the area was conquered by Islamic forces. Thus, at that time the strength of the Jews was weak, while the strength of the Muslims was very strong.
Actually, the position of Muslims is very reliable if the Prophet Muhammad wants to be neutral in giving legal decisions, such as threatening the accused party with the fighting forces of the Islamic forces. But he did not do that. He still asked for evidence to Muslims who accused the Jews. But those who accused them could not provide evidence. After that he told the Jews to swear that they did not commit murder as they were accused. They also swore and he did not punish them at all for the accusations that Muslims put forward. He released them from all charges.
All readers! Once again, we have seen the justice and neutrality of the Prophet Muhammad when he gave a legal decision. He did not side with the Muslims who filed the lawsuit even if only a little. Hopefully we, especially law enforcers, can emulate this attitude.
I think that is enough for this article about legal decision of Prophet Muhammad! Hopefully useful for human peace in the sky and on earth! Amen!
See you again in the next article!
We can find the following story above, Fannu at-Ta’aamul an-Nabawiy ma’a Ghairi al-Muslimiin, by Raghib as-Sarjani, Dar al-Arqam, Cairo, 2010, p. 128-134.