Hi all readers! In this article I will explain the geography of the ancient Arab region. For me personally, as a Muslim we must know about it to understand Islam. In addition, in the next few articles I will explain about Islam and its history, starting from the time of the Prophet Muhammad to some time thereafter.
Okay! Straight to!
There are differences of opinion as to why the Arab nation (al-‘Arab) is called the Arab nation (al-‘Arab). According to language experts, the meaning of the words “al-‘Arab” and “al-A’raab” is language fluency. When the Arabs believed that all the world was helpless before them, that is why they considered themselves “al-‘Arab” (people who have oral fluency) and the wards as “al-‘Ajam” (people who have no fluency language).
The geography of the Arab region is surrounded by four regions. On the west there is the Red Sea. To the east there is the Persian Gulf and the sea of Oman. To the south there is the Indian Ocean. And, in the north there is the interior of Sham (Syam).
All you need to know is that the Arabs do not only live in the Arab region. They have several other places around it. But the majority of them live in the Arab region.
The majority of the Arab region is a desert in the middle. But the nature of the desert there is not the same, but there are three kinds;
First; a desert called Samawa. The area is with the an-Nufud desert in the north. It covers 140 miles from the north south, and 180 miles from east to west. In general, the dust there is very soft. There are only a few wells and water sources there. This fact makes it difficult for people to walk there, even more so because the wind can play with the dust so that small piles are formed. There it rains in winter. Plants and flowers of various colors also grow. The majority of the population are badui people. They are leaving the area in the summer, because the land is very barren and dry. Then they returned there again in the winter to feed their livestock.
To the south of the Samawa desert is a bridge called Syammar. The mountain is famous for the name Thayyi mountain. The climate there is moderate, rainfall is high, there is a lot of grass, and there are many villages and cities there. There are two mountains which are branches of Thayyi’ mountain; Aja and Salma.
Second; desert in the south. The desert is connected to the Samawa desert. The desert stretches east to the Persian Gulf. The area is estimated at 50,000 square miles. In general, the soil conditions are flat and hard. Gravels are scattered and the dust is rustling. If it rains in the season, then the earth grows grass. Badui people come out carrying livestock and their women. They lived there for 3 months to herd their livestock. They drink from their milk. When summer arrives, plants dry out and they return to their place.
In general, the second region is very dry. There are rarely trees, bushes, and date palms. There are many names used by Arabs to call it; the part that is between the east of Yemen and Hadlramaut is called Shaihada, the part that is north and east of Hadlramaut is called al-Ahqaf, the part south of Maharah is called ad-Dahnaa. And now, all these regions are called ar-Rub’u al-Khali.
Third; al-Harrat desert. This area consists of two parts; Hijaz in the north and Yemen in the south. The Hijaz region extends from Ayla (al-‘Aqabah) to Yemen. The region is called the Hijaz because the region is a series of mountains that separates Tihama from Najed. Hijaz is a region in the form of a plateau in the east. The Hijaz is a poor region that has many valleys filled with water after rain. However, there is not much water supply. Some areas have a moderate climate, such as Taif. While the climate in other regions is very hot. The majority of the population are badui people.
Hijaz is a very strategic region because the region is a trade route that connects Yemen with the southern regions. Before Islam came, Jews often went there. There they established occupation in Khaibar, Medina, and so on. There are two very famous cities in the Hijaz; Mecca and Medina. Mecca is in a valley that has no plants. Its length from north to south is about 2 miles, from east to west about 1 mile. There were no water sources except the Zamzam well. Whereas the name of Medina at that time was Yathrib. To the north there is Uhud Mountain. There are many date palms there. To the northeast is Khaibar. The land is not suitable for planting.
In the south of Hijaz is Yemen. In the east of Yemen there are Hadlramaut regions. To the east of Hadlramaut is Dhafar. On the southeast side there is Oman. Between Najed and Yemen there is Yamamah.
In general, the Arabian Peninsula is a very hot area. The air is cold at night. The water is frozen in the winter. The best air is the east wind.
All readers! That is a brief explanation of the theme of this article. If you want to comment, please! We’re dialogue!
I think that is enough for this article. May be useful! Amen!
See you again in the next article!
Syibli an-Nu’mani, Daa’iratu al-Ma’aarif fii Siirati an-Nabiy Shallallaahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam, perfected by Sulaiman an-Nadawi, translated from Jordanian by Yusuf’ Amir, a private publisher with help from Hasan Abbas Zaki, Vol. I, p. 99-100.
Ahmad Amin, Fajru al-Islaam, ad-Daar al-Mishriyyah al-Lubnaaniyyah, Cairo, I, 2014, p. 39-42.